Download Analog Circuit Design: Operational Amplifiers, Analog to by William H. Gross (auth.), Johan H. Huijsing, Rudy J. van der PDF

By William H. Gross (auth.), Johan H. Huijsing, Rudy J. van der Plassche, Willy Sansen (eds.)

Many attention-grabbing layout developments are proven via the six papers on operational amplifiers (Op Amps). first of all. there's the road of stand-alone Op Amps utilizing a bipolar IC know-how which mixes high-frequency and excessive voltage. This line is represented in papers through invoice Gross and Derek Bowers. invoice Gross indicates a much better high-frequency reimbursement means of a top quality 3 degree Op Amp. Derek Bowers improves the achieve and frequency behaviour of the levels of a two-stage Op Amp. either papers additionally current tendencies in current-mode suggestions Op Amps. Low-voltage bipolar Op Amp layout is gifted by means of leroen Fonderie. He exhibits how multipath nested Miller reimbursement may be utilized to show rail-to-rail enter and output levels into top of the range low-voltage Op Amps. papers on CMOS Op Amps through Michael Steyaert and Klaas Bult express how excessive velocity and excessive achieve VLSI construction blocks might be realised. with out departing from a single-stage OT A constitution with a folded cascode output, a radical excessive frequency layout strategy and a gain-boosting method contributed to the high-speed and the high-gain completed with those Op Amps. . eventually. Rinaldo Castello indicates us tips to offer output energy with CMOS buffer amplifiers. the combo of sophistication A and AB levels in a multipath nested Miller constitution presents the necessary linearity and bandwidth.

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Additional info for Analog Circuit Design: Operational Amplifiers, Analog to Digital Convertors, Analog Computer Aided Design

Example text

The maximum bandwidth of the OpAmp is determined by the current flowing through the output transistors, which determines their transconductance, and by the capacitive load it has to drive. Any transistors preceding the actual CE output transistors more or less reduce the obtainable bandwidth. This reduction should be kept as small as possible. The output stage should be able to push and pull output currents in the order of lOrnA, which means that its current gain should be in the order of 103 .

Enable the n-p-n pair to function properly when the CM-input voltage exceeds this value. The transistors Q8-QJJ and resistors R8-R JJ sum the collector currents of the input pairs. 2 shows the CM range of the input stage as function of the supply voltage, the so-called operational regions. It can be seen that either the p-n-p pair or the n-p-n pair is active, but not both. 6 V (the sum of VRJ , the base-emitter voltage of Q5 and the saturation voltage of fBJ) the n-p-n pair is completely shut off and only the p-n-p pair is operative.

Therefore Miller capacitors are inserted between the input and the output. They split the poles, leaving the output stage with one dominating pole, which yields a stable frequency response [4]. The output stages discussed in this Section are shown with a large capacitive load and no resistive load, because the latter is the most difficult condition where the compensation of the circuits is concerned. L--f/I VEE Figure 5: Darlington output stage (n-p-n side). To illustrate the consequences of the demands stated above, two examples of low-voltage output stages are examined.

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