By Andrew Liddle
A concise, obtainable creation to this fascinating and dynamic subject.* Adopts an method grounded in physics instead of mathematics.* contains labored examples and scholar difficulties, besides tricks for fixing them and the numerical answers.* Many reviewers have commented that this can be the most effective 'introductory undergraduate point' texts at the topic and they'd all welcome a moment variation.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Modern Cosmology
The common feature of these environments is that they are ones of considerable excess density, very different from the smooth distribution of matter we used to derive the Friedmann equation. But if we go to large enough scales, in practice tens of megaparsecs, the Universe does become effectively homogeneous and isotropic, with the galaxies flying apart from one another in accordance with the Friedmann equation. It is on these large scales that the expansion of the Universe is felt, and on which the cosmological principle applies.
Suppose we have a more general equation of state, p = (7 — l)pc2, where 7 is a constant in the range 0 < 7 < 2. Find solutions for p(a), a(t) and hence p(t) for Universes containing such matter. Assume k = 0 in the Friedmann equation. What is the solution if p = — pc2? 4. 3, what value of 7 would be needed so that p has the same time dependence as the curvature term k/a 2 ? Find the solution a(t) to the full Friedmann equation for a fluid with this 7, assuming negative k. 5. The full Friedmann equation is d a Consider the case k > 0, with a Universe containing only matter (p = 0) so that p = p0/a3.
Unfortunately, that is not true of real observations. 3. What evidence can you think of to support the assertion that the Universe is charge neutral, and hence contains an equal number of protons and electrons? 4. 6 eV. What is the frequency of a photon with this energy? At what temperature does the mean photon energy equal this energy? 5. 8k&T/h implies that fpeak/T is a constant. Evaluate this constant in SI units (see page xiv for useful numbers). The Sun radiates approximately as a black-body with Tsun ~ 5800 K.