By Robert Bogdan Staszewski
A brand new and cutting edge paradigm for RF frequency synthesis and instant transmitter designLearn the options for designing and enforcing an all-digital RF frequency synthesizer. unlike conventional RF options, this leading edge ebook units forth digitally in depth layout strategies that prepared the ground to the advance of inexpensive, low-power, and hugely built-in circuits for RF capabilities in deep submicron CMOS methods. additionally, the authors show how the structure allows readers to combine an RF front-end with the electronic back-end onto a unmarried silicon die utilizing general ASIC layout flow.Taking a bottom-up method that steadily builds abilities and information, the ebook starts with an advent to simple innovations of frequency synthesis after which publications the reader via an all-digital RF frequency synthesizer design:Chapter 2 offers a digitally managed oscillator (DCO), that's the root of a unique structure, and introduces a time-domain version used for research and VHDL simulationChapter three provides a hierarchical layer of mathematics abstraction to the DCO that makes it more straightforward to function algorithmicallyChapter four builds a part correction mechanism round the DCO such that the system's frequency waft or wander functionality suits that of the good exterior frequency referenceChapter five provides an software of the all-digital RF synthesizerChapter 6 describes the behavioral modeling and simulation technique utilized in designThe ultimate bankruptcy offers the implementation of a whole transmitter and experimental effects. the radical rules awarded right here were carried out and confirmed in high-volume, advertisement single-chip radios constructed at Texas tools: Bluetooth and GSM.While the focal point of the publication is on RF frequency synthesizer layout, the concepts might be utilized to the layout of different digitally assisted analog circuits in addition. This ebook is a must-read for college students and engineers who are looking to study a brand new paradigm for RF frequency synthesis and instant transmitter layout utilizing digitally in depth layout ideas.
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Additional info for All-Digital Frequency Synthesizer in Deep-Submicron CMOS
3 Digitally Intensive Approach Rapid reduction in the transistor feature size in recently developed deep-submicron CMOS processes shifts the design paradigm toward more digitally intensive or digitally assisted techniques . In a monolithic implementation, the manufacturing cost of a design is measured not in terms of a number of devices used but rather, in terms of the silicon area occupied and is only marginally dependent on the actual circuit complexity. The testing part of the overall cost does indeed depend on the circuit complexity, but a large number of digital gates typically have higher test coverage at lower testing cost than even a small analog circuit.
Much lower parameter variability than with analog circuits. Ease of testability—automatic functional testing with good fault coverage. Smaller silicon area and less power dissipated, which can only get better with each CMOS technology advancement (also called a process node). An excellent chance of first-time silicon success. Commercial analog circuits usually require several design, layout, and fabrication iterations to meet marketing requirements. 4 System Integration Integration presents a wide array of opportunities.
The frequency resolution is a function of the operational frequency f, which in this implementation is established by the total capacitance C of the LC tank. To make it a function of only one independent variable, Eq. 13 is now merged with Eq. 2: D f T ( f ) ¼ À2p 2 LDC T f 3 (2:14) In the BLUETOOTH example, Df T ¼ 23 kHz. The total tracking-bank frequency deviation from the lowest frequency is T f (f) ¼ Df T NT X k¼1 dkT NT NT X DC T X T 2 T 3 ¼ Àf d ¼ À2p LDC f dkT 2C k¼1 k k¼1 (2:15) The tracking-bank encoding is classified as a redundant arithmetic system since there are many ways to represent a number (since all bits have equal weight).