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By A Erman Tekkaya; Nooman Ben Khalifa

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Additional info for Advances on hot extrusion and simulation of light alloys : selected, peer reviewed papers from the International Conference on Extrusion and Benchmark (ICEB), Dortmund 2009, Germany, September 16.-17. 2009

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Figure 8 shows the tongues deflection of the partially supported (A1, up) and of the full supported (A2, bottom) profile after the subtraction of the press deformation and the relative displacement of the partially supported tongue respect to fully support (Δ(A1-A2)). 51mm higher than press displacement during the whole stroke as also visible by the plotting of Δ(A1-A2). So that, after subtracting the press deflection, the bottom tongue did not deflect while the top one showed an almost constant deflection (Fig.

1). As a reason of the high extrusion ratio, a high deformation degree occurs with variable friction coefficients, temperature changes and variable stress and strain rate values (Figs. 2, 3). The data structure of the program includes the governing equations, the mesh of the billet, the rheology of the material, the tool description, the frictional interface and the numerical parameters [6]. The program uses implicit FEM to calculate the hot working parameters: load, strain rate, temperature field and deformation.

A) (b) Fig. 6: (a) Subgrain size [m] as well as (b) grain size [m] evolution in the extrudate. The marked areas define the regions, which were compared with the experimental investigations. Hence the comparison of simulations and experiments show a good correspondence with regard to grain and grain and subgrain size (compare Fig. 5b and Fig. 6) of the air cooled condition. The water quenched specimen was not easy to characterize due to its fine substructure (Fig. 5a), however the difference between these two states has been numerically simulated and the expected tendency was verified.

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