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By Saeed V. Vaseghi

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Since scratches are essentially the impulse response of the playback mechanism, it is expected that for a given system, various scratch pulses exhibit a similar characteristics. 6(b), a typical scratch pulse waveform often exhibits two distinct regions: (a) the initial high-amplitude pulse response of the playback system to the physical discontinuity on the record medium, followed by; (b) decaying oscillations that cause additive distortion. The initial pulse is relatively short and has a duration on the order of 1–5 ms, whereas the oscillatory tail has a longer duration and may last up to 50 ms or more.

In general, digital signal processing is concerned with two broad areas of information theory: (a) efficient and reliable coding, transmission, reception, storage and representation of signals in communication systems, and (b) the extraction of information from noisy signals for pattern recognition, detection, forecasting, decision-making, signal enhancement, control, automation etc. In the next section we consider four broad approaches to signal processing problems. 2 Signal Processing Methods Signal processing methods have evolved in algorithmic complexity aiming for optimal utilisation of the information in order to achieve the best performance.

For example, for an audio system with a bandwidth of 10 kHz, any flat-spectrum audio noise with a bandwidth greater than 10 kHz looks like a white noise. 1 Illustration of (a) white noise, (b) its autocorrelation, and (c) its power spectrum. 2) shows that a white noise has a constant power spectrum. A pure white noise is a theoretical concept, since it would need to have infinite power to cover an infinite range of frequencies. Furthermore, a discrete-time signal by necessity has to be band-limited, with its highest frequency less than half the sampling rate.

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