Download A Text-book of Practical Organic Chemistry Including by Arthur Israel Vogel PDF

By Arthur Israel Vogel

The most effective books there's instructing useful natural chemistry. The 3rd variation of this ebook (first released in 1956) is really of far better use to the pastime chemist, because it doesn't utilize any hideously dear glassware/apparatus or unique reagents or catalysts.

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Extra info for A Text-book of Practical Organic Chemistry Including Qualitative Organic Analysis. Third Edition

Example text

If the distillate be redistilled, the vapour approaches the composition of the minimum boiling point system, as can be seen from the figure. Hence fractional distillation will result in a distillate of composition Lm, although the final residue will approach A. , at a temperature // the vapour (and therefore the distillate) will have the composition F/. As the distillation continues the composition of the vapour changes to V2' and the liquid to L2'. Fractional distillation will, in this case, yield a solution of composition L^, and the residue will approach B.

The vapour pressure may be either greater or less than that calculated. , carbon disulphide and acetone at 35°), the total vapour pressure curve will be greater than that calculated and the curve passes through a maximum. , acetone and chloroform at 35°), Mot fractionofBthe total vapour pressure curve ~Mol. fraction of A will be less than that calculated Fig. /, 1. and the curve will pass through a minimum. It can be shown that when the vapour pressure is a maximum or a minimum, the composition of the vapour is the same as that of the liquid with which it is in equilibrium.

A and 80 per cent. B. By joining the first arrest points (represented by crosses) the liquidus curve is obtained, whilst the solidus curve is obtained by drawing a line through the second arrest points (denoted by circles; see Fig. /, 13, 2,b). In practice, it is only necessary to plot the arrest temperatures against the composition, but it is believed that Fig. /, 13, 2 brings out clearly the connexion between cooling curves and the equilibrium diagram for the system under discussion, and is therefore of considerable interest.

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