By Rob Johnson
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This e-book explores how global historic techniques, from alterations in setting to the circulation of peoples and concepts, have formed and proceed to form the historical past of South Asia and its position within the wider international. because the area has consistently proved capable of draw idea from its conventional styles of lifestyles to innovate within the face of quick switch has been significantly demonstrated over the centuries via forces as diversified as colonialism to spiritual fundamentalism, so too has it motivated the broader global.
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Additional info for A Region in Turmoil: South Asian Conflicts since 1947
In recent years, competition for jobs has fuelled violence between Sindhis and Mohajirs, but it is the growth of militant Islam that has attracted international attention. Grenade attacks on Christian worshippers, car bombings and street violence are not tolerated by the military government, but there is a worrying trend of increasing terrorism in the country. Officially, Pakistan is a secular state in accordance with the wishes of its founder, Mohammed Ali Jinnah. Jinnah died of tuberculosis in September 1948 so it fell to his successor, Liaquat Ali, to endorse the secular position.
This generated unforeseen consequences. Many Sufis played a crucial role in demanding a restoration of democracy. As a result, Pakistan still threatened to tear itself apart on the issue of national and religious identity. 4 'Islam in danger' is still the rallying cry of the Muslim League, and, after the setbacks of 1971, the traditionalists have continually advocated the supremacy of their atavistic programme over the modernists. In December 1979 Pakistan was suddenly thrust into the frontline of the Cold War by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and the United States began sending generous shipments of arms to bolster Pakistan, which in turn assisted the Mujahideen and helped pay for the four million refugees who flooded across the North-West Frontier.
In 1962, however, clumsy diplomacy rather than aggression led India into a border war with China that ended in a rout of Indian forces. The Chinese withdrew, but relations were permanently damaged and the whole question of India's security, particularly after the outbreak of another war with Pakistan in 1965, returned to the top of the government's agenda. When Mrs Gandhi came to power in January 1966 she did so initially in the hope that peace would be the hallmark of her administration at home and abroad.