By Renato Constantino
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Additional resources for A History of the Philippines: From the Spanish Colonization to the Second World War
The belief that the world is divided into natural definable culturaUethnic groupings has provided the answer in the form of national communities. Each naturally existing cultural/ethnic grouping has the right to form an autonomous political community, the socio-political community that is called the nation. THE FUSION OF CIVIC AND ETHNIC NATIONALISM This relatively new political principle that ties cultural groupings with the right to autonomy was succinctly set out by John Stuart Mill in 1861 'where the sentiment of nationality exists in any force, there is a prima facie case for uniting all the members of the nationality under the same government, and a government to themselves apart.
2 However, their belief in the demise of nationalism has been shared across the political spectrum: Ernest Renan, quoted above, predicted as early as 1887 that some form of European Confederation would eventually replace nationalism; at the close of the Second World War E. H. Carr, whilst recognising that nationalism was at its peak, felt that the world was moving on to new forms of organisation; similarly, Karl Deutsch, whose work represented a watershed in writings on nationalism, predicted that the processes that had produced nationalism may 'soon come to turn against it'.
Briefly, the doctrine holds that humanity is naturally divided into nations, that nations are known by certain characteristics which can be ascertained, and that Ethnicity, Nationalism and Nation-Building 27 the only legitimate type of government is national self-government'. 17 Kedourie cannot understand why on earth a European doctrine which is, at its heart, false should be taken up as a cause by the rest of the world. For Kedourie, it is ironic that the rest of the world should have taken up the banner of nationalism for it 'is neither something indigenous to these areas nor an irresistible tendency of the human spirit everywhere, but rather an importation from Europe clearly branded with the mark of its origin' .