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By Afaf Lutfi Al-Sayyid Marsot

Автор - профессор истории Ближнего и Среднего Востока Калифорнийского Университета - в своей книге даёт краткий курс истории Египта - от завоевания государства арабами, через эпоху мамлюков, объединение Египта в Османской империи, либеральные эксперименты в конституционном правительстве в начале двадцатого столетия, продолжившиеся в годы Насера и Садата, до настоящего времени, характеризующегося появлением новых политических партий, укреплением исламского фундаментализма и постепенного изменения отношения к женщинам.Образцы сканов:

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Maqrizi, the most notable historian of the period, claimed that all evil that occurred was due to the corruption and incompetence of the rulers. He accused their government of a lack of continuity which led to political unrest and to turmoil, resulting from the struggles among the amirs as they jockeyed for power every time one of the sultans died, or even when the amirs tired of one sultan and sought to displace him in favour of another who promised them greater spoils. Finally bedouin encroachments devastated the settled land and caused the fallahin to flee the land, or to become brigands.

As the mamluks’ need for funds grew, along with their campaigns, their rivalries grew in proportion. Some rulers were unable to control their followers, who sacked and looted at will and demanded bribes to support their overlord. These extra funds came from overburdening trade and commerce with taxes, until the final desperate gesture of imposing a monopoly on trade in spices. The previous dynasts in Egypt had usually added new territory to the country, or regained some lost territory. The mamluks, whose sole talent was warfare, added the island of Cyprus to Egypt under the rule of the Bahri mamluks.

He was an ally of the Byzantine emperor and of the Golden Horde, an alliance which repelled further advances by the Il-Khans, or the Mongols of the east. All the alliances and treaties Baibars negotiated with neighbouring countries revealed him as a prudent and careful leader, who ruled wisely and well. But there was another side to his nature, one that was adventurous and daring. His exploits so captured the imagination of the Egyptian population that they turned him into a folk hero, writing a romance that recounts his exploits and bears his name.

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