By Peter Polak (auth.)
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Extra info for A Background to Engineering Design
In subsequent service the stress can never exceed yield point provided that the spring never receives reverse load; therefore springs can be designed to operate at quite high stresses (see Wahl 21 ). Structures and pressure vessels normally receive a proof or test load in excess of the stated service load. Any discontinuities will either crack or receive a residual stress opposed to the working stress; provided no cracks are started, the working stresses are thereby lowered wherever yielding had occurred.
Stabilised austenitic stainless steel has a different crystal system which seems to be free from this trouble, as are most non-ferrous metals. S. -700 MN/m 2 , with a low yield point when annealed and excellent ductility as a result of their progessive rate of workhardening, which also makes them difficult to machine, especially if fine cuts are taken where rubbing plays more part than in deep cuts. Their high thermal expansion was mentioned earlier; their thermal conductivity is low, k-16 W/m °C, which is useful in kitchen tools.
Simple axial cams are used to set the temperature. or time in electric irons and toasters (figure 57). Snail cams as in figure 58 are useful for clamping or adjustment. Often they need not have an entirely regular rise-rate but can consist of two offset semicircle shapes which makes for ease of manufacture by standard concave milling cutters. 39 6 Materials in Outline The designer must obviously know a great deal about materials, their properties and problems. The maker of the object also should be familiar with these; to call for materials new to the maker can produce problems of supply, identification, treatment and storage.